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The Chinese also made several important improvements in ship design, such as the sternpost rudder, multiple masts and lateen sails.These improvements gave greater maneuverability and allowed ships to sail at any time of the year.To prevent conflict between Portugal and Castile (the crown under which Columbus made the voyage), the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed dividing the world into two regions of exploration, where each had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands.While other exploratory fleets were sent from Portugal to northern North America, in the following years Portuguese India Armadas also extended this Eastern oceanic route, touching sometimes South America and by this way opening a circuit from the New World to Asia (starting in 1500, under the command of Pedro Alvares Cabral), and explored islands in the South Atlantic and Southern Indian Oceans.From the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of invaders from previously unknown continents.Global exploration started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores, the coast of Africa, and the discovery of the sea route to India in 1498; and, on behalf of the Crown of Castile (Spain), the trans-Atlantic Voyages of Christopher Columbus between 14, and the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519–1522.The Red Sea was barely known and only trade links with the Maritime republics, the Republic of Venice especially, fostered collection of accurate maritime knowledge.Indian Ocean trade routes were sailed by Arab traders.

The fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, India, Maritime Southeast Asia and Thailand.The compass had been used for navigation in China by the 11th century and was adopted by the Arab traders in the Indian Ocean.It spread to Europe by the late 12th or early 13th century.It also marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe of colonialism and mercantilism as national policies.Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered by them during this period, though most were already inhabited.

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Another source was the Radhanite Jewish trade networks of merchants established as go-betweens between Europe and the Muslim world during the time of the Crusader states.

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